National Ski Patrol

Certified

By-Laws

                                March 30, 1999

cerbylaw.doc

Purpose and Objectives

Section 1        To provide a professional level from which professional patrollers can participate in the National Ski Patrol System

Section 2        To promote a good working relationship between the ski patrol and area management.

Section 3        To encourage a high level of proficiency in both professional and volunteer patrollers through training and testing of both Certified and other patrollers.

Section 4        To promote a level of active patrolling in which there is no compromise with excellence in skiing, outdoor emergency care techniques, patrol management, administration and leadership and to utilize these talents to promote safety in the sport of skiing.

Section 5        To encourage and promote direct relationships and interchange of techniques and information between professional and volunteer patrollers among all ski areas in the Eastern Division

Program Objectives

Section 1.       The program is in itself largely self-regulating but must operate within the by-laws of the National Ski Patrol and of the Eastern Division. For direction and organization, a Certified Committee shall be formed from the Certified membership, which will carry out the business of the Eastern Division Certified Program.

Section 2.       The Certified Committee shall consist of:

                                    The Certified Program Chairperson

                                    Vice Chairperson

                                    Secretary

                                    Treasurer

Steering Committee Chairperson

                                    Recertification  Chairperson

                                    Credentials Committee Chairperson

                                    Nominating Committee Chairperson

                                    Area Operations and Risk Management Chairperson

                                    Avalanche Management Chairperson

                                    Emergency Care Chairperson

                                    Lift Evacuation and Rope Management Chairperson

                                    Ski and Toboggan Chairperson

Section 3        The Certified Program Chairperson is elected by the Certified membership and the Certified Chairperson appoints all others. No member shall be permitted to hold more than one of the above positions concurrently.

The Certified Program Chairperson

                The Certified Program Chairperson shall be the executive officer of the Certified Committee. The Chairperson shall preside over all meetings and business affairs of the Committee. The Chairperson shall have the power of appointment for those positions deemed necessary. The Chairperson is responsible for setting the date and location of the annual spring meeting / examination and must notify the membership in writing. The Chairperson must submit an annual report to the general membership. Elections for the office of Certified Chairperson shall be held at the spring meeting every two years in the odd numbered years. A majority vote of the members present and voting at the meeting will be required for election. The Chairperson shall be elected to a two year term and the results shall be forwarded to the Division Director.

Vice Chairperson

            The Certified Chairperson shall appoint the Vice Chairperson. In the event that the Certified Chairperson in unable or unwilling to fulfill his or her duties the Vice Chairperson shall serve as Chairperson until the next annual meeting at which time a special election will be held to elect a Chairperson to complete the term. The Vice Chairperson shall preside over all business meetings in the absence of the Certified Chairperson.

Secretary

            The duties of the secretary shall be:

                        1)         To record the proceedings of all Committee and annual spring meetings and any other business meetings that may be called during the year.

                        2)         To submit minutes of all meetings to the Committee and general membership in a timely manner.

                        3)         To maintain and provide a current mailing list to all Certified members.

4)         To perform other such duties as the Certified Committee may prescribe.

                        5)         Supervise elections

6)                 To inform the membership of the annual meeting location and schedule.

7)                 Maintain a data file of membership information

Treasurer

                                The Certified Chairperson shall appoint the Treasurer. The Treasurer is responsible to track the financial dealings of the Eastern Division Certified Program. He or She is responsible to provide a financial report to the membership at the annual meeting and provide a written financial report to any member in good standing upon request.

Steering Committee Chairperson

            The Steering Committee Chairperson shall oversee a committee appointed by the Certified Chairperson. This Committee shall discuss and investigate the feasibility of new ideas and procedures and conduct long range planning and constant review of goals for the Certified Program. The ideas and procedures shall be brought to the Committee's attention through regular meetings or by notification from any member. The Committee shall be responsible to study and present the results to the Certified Committee for possible approval.

Recertification Chairperson

            The Recertification Chairperson shall be responsible for:

                        1)         Scheduling, organizing and administering Recerts

2)         Maintain records of and reporting to the Certified   Chairperson the results of recertifications.

3)         Providing and obtaining recertification results between the Professional Ski Patrol Association and the Eastern Division Certified program for dual members.

4)         Provide re-cerification information to the secretary for inclusion in the membership information file.

Credentials Committee Chairperson

            The Chairperson of the Credentials Committee shall oversee a committee appointed by the Certified Chairperson. The committee shall review and either approve or disapprove the applications received for entry into the Certified program according to application guidelines approved by the Certified Committee. The Chairperson shall deliver a report of the results of both the successful and unsuccessful candidates to the Certified Chairperson and a report of the successful candidates to  the Certified OEC Chairperson and the Certified Ski and Toboggan Chairperson. The Credentials Committee chairperson shall forward to the Secretary the names and addresses of successful applicants and their supporting information for inclusion in the membership information file.

Nominating Committee Chairperson

            The Nominating Committee Chairperson shall oversee a committee appointed by the Certified Chairperson. He or she will present a slate of nominee(s) for election at annual meetings where this Program Guide requires that an election will be held for the position of Certified Chairperson. He or she will notify the Certified membership in writing of the upcoming election and the proposed candidates for the Certified Chairperson's position. This notification shall be sent with information about the upcoming annual exam. If a member of the Nominating Committee is chosen to be on the list of nominee(s), he or she will be required to resign from the Nominating Committee

Area Operations and Risk Management Chairperson

The Area Operations and Risk Management Chairperson shall coordinate and administer the Area Operations and Risk Management (Module 1) component of the annual exam as outlined in the Eastern Division Certified Program Guidelines. All results shall be forwarded to the Certified Chairperson and for PSPA applicants, to the PSPA President. The Area Operations and Risk Management Chairperson shall designate appropriate, qualified Certified examiners to  examine at the yearly exam. This chairperson shall be a Certified examiner.

Avalanche Management  Chairperson

            The Avalanche Management Chairperson shall coordinate and administer the Avalanche Management (Module 2) component of the annual exam as outlined in the Eastern Division Certified Program Guidelines. All results shall be forwarded to the Certified Chairperson and for PSPA applicants, to the PSPA President. The Avalanche Management Chairperson shall designate appropriate, qualified Certified examiners to examine at the yearly exam. This chairperson shall be a Certified examiner.

Emergency Care Chairperson

            The Emergency Care Chairperson shall coordinate and administer the Emergency Care (Module 3) component of the annual exam as outlined in the Eastern Division Certified Program Guidelines. All results shall be forwarded to the Certified Chairperson and for PSPA applicants, to the PSPA President. The Certified Emergency Care Chairperson shall designate appropriate, qualified Certified examiners to examine at the yearly exam. This chairperson shall be a Certified examiner and should be a current OEC Instructor.

Lift Evacuation and Rope Management Chairperson

            The Lift Evacuation and Rope Management Chairperson shall coordinate and administer the Lift Evacuation and Rope Management (Module 4) component of the annual exam as outlined in the Eastern Division Certified Program Guidelines. All results shall be forwarded to the Certified Chairperson and for PSPA applicants, to the PSPA President. The Lift Evacuation and Rope Management Chairperson shall designate appropriate, qualified Certified examiners to examine at the yearly exam. This chairperson shall be a Certified examiner.

The Ski and Toboggan Chairperson

            With assistance of this chairperson’s helpers and examiners, this chairperson shall conduct the Ski and Toboggan (Modules 5&6) component of the annual exam as outlined in the Eastern Division Certified Program Guidelines. All results shall be forwarded to the Certified Chairperson and for PSPA applicants, to the PSPA President. The Certified Ski and Toboggan Chairperson shall designate appropriate, qualified Certified examiners to conduct precourses and examine at the yearly exam. This chairperson shall be a Certified examiner.

  

Membership

The process by which a patroller may enter into the Certified Program is as follows:

Section 1

If you are applying through the National Ski Patrol:

  • Fill out the "NSP Education Program Certified Candidate/Recertification Application"

  • Complete and submit the following essay questions:

                        1)         Why do you want to a Certified Patroller?

                        2)         What do you expect to gain from the Certified Program?

                        3)         What benefits can the Certified Program and the NSP expect to gain from your participation?

                        4)         Do you participate in training Patrol or Senior Candidates? What do you contribute to your patrol        beyond your required shifts? Are you involved in Lift evacuation training, CPR training, OEC training, etc?.

                        5)         Do you have aspirations to assume a leadership position in your patrol, the region or division?

                        6)         How does your professional career benefit from your patrol activities or how do your patrol activities benefit from your professional career?                       

  • Provide us with two (2) letters of recommendation from Certified Patrollers.

            Note: When members compose letters they should be as through as possible and should include direct knowledge of the applicant’s abilities and qualifications. The Credentials Committee members rely on the content and extent of the letters when considering accepting the applicant into the program.

                                   

  • Send all of these requirements to:  "Credentials Committee Chairperson"                                                                                   

  • Attend and successfully complete an approved Certified Precourse     

Section 2

            If you are applying through the reciprocity agreement between the PSPA (Professional Ski Patrol Association) and National Ski Patrol:

  • Obtain and fill out:  (obtained through the Credentials Committee Chairperson or the PSPA secretary) " Application for Reciprocal Membership"

  • Provide us with a letter of recommendation from the current  PSPA  President attesting to the applicant being a member in good standing.

  • Provide us with a letter of introduction outlining what your commitment to the organization you are applying to will be, and how you plan on becoming involved to help us preserve and strengthen the program

  • Provide us a letter of recommendation from your Patrol  Director or Superviso

  • Send all of these requirements to:   "Credentials Committee Chairperson"

The Credentials Committee Chairperson must receive a complete application package at least 30 days in advance of the annual exam

Section 3        The Credentials Committee then reviews all applications and recommends or denies entry into the program

Section 4        Once a patroller has been accepted as a Certified Candidate, he or she has three (3) calendar years to complete the following six modules. Exceptional circumstances may extend the 3 calendar year requirement. A letter requesting an extension should be addressed to the Certified Chairperson.

                       

                        Module 1        Area Operations and Risk Management

                        Module 2        Avalanche Management

                        Module 3        Emergency Care

                        Module 4        Lift Evacuation and Rope Management

                        Module 5        Skiing

                        Module 6        Toboggan Handling

            see the program guide for specifics about the required modules

Membership Categories

Section 1        Active Member -        Any person who has completed all six certified modules within the three calendar year period. In order to maintain membership each member must recertify in Toboggan Handling and Skiing every three years. Any member may request a one-year extension for a valid reason.

Section 2        Inactive member - Members in good standing whose request for a leave of absence has been approved by the Certified Committee.

Section 3        Alumni Membership  - Certified Patrollers who no longer meet all of the requirements of an Active Member

Section 4        Charter Membership - The five original proposing members of the Certified Program shall be considered to be Charter Members and shall retain all the rights of Active members

Section 5        Lifetime Membership - A special category of membership limited to individuals who have been fully Certified for a minimum of twelve (12) years may be eligible to attain Lifetime status.

            Criteria for lifetime status:

1)                 Twelve years Certified

2)                 Demonstrated Active membership

Attended and participated to a great extent in the  annual exams/meetings and/or precourse, introduction to Certified programs, Certified patrollers schools, etc.                                               

3)                 Nominated for Lifetime status

By another Certified member

 

4)         Valid reason for change of status to Lifetime

5)           Approved by Lifetime Committee.

Process:

1)                 Nomination is submitted in writing to the Lifetime Committee prior to the annual meeting

2)                 Committee reviews nominees program credentials

3)                 Committee Approves or disapproves lifetime status. Two thirds (2/3) majority vote of the committee is required for acceptance

Lifetime Committee composition

           

1)                 Certified Chairperson

2)                 Chairpeople of all standing committees

3)                 Three Lifetime members (when available) appointed by chairperson

¨      A Lifetime Certified member must maintain membership in the National Ski Patrol

¨      A Lifetime Certified member has the rights and privileges of other Certified members

¨      A Lifetime Certified member may serve as an examiner in any Certified discipline in which he/she is currently qualified with the approval of the chairperson overseeing the discipline and the Certified Chairperson.

¨      Lifetime members do not need to recertify their ski and toboggan skills

¨      Lifetime members who do not recertify ski and toboggan may not serve as Certified Ski and Toboggan Examiners

¨      Lifetime Certified status is seen as a great honor bestowed on individuals who, over many years, have proven their skill and abilities on the Certified level. These members are no longer asked to prove their ski and toboggan skills but are valued for their experience and depth of knowledge in Ski Patrolling and therefore serve as a valuable resource  to the Certified Program      

Reactivation of lapsed status

            A Certified Patroller who has failed to maintain active status due to failure to maintain registration with the National Ski Patrol or by failure to re-certify every three years or any other cause may apply for Reinstatement of Active Status by complying with the following procedure:

1)                 Submit an “Application for Reinstatement of Active Status” to the Chairperson of the Credentials Committee with the following information:

a)                 Proof of current registration with the NSP.

b)                 Date of last re-certification.

c)                  A Letter from their Patrol Director or Area Manager confirming active patrol status.

d)                 Proof of current OEC and CPR credentials.

e)                 A statement as to the reason active status has not been maintained

2)                 Applicants shall attend a Certified Test and pass the skiing and toboggan re-certification test.

3)                 The Applicant shall pass the test for any modules of the Certified test that have been added to the program since the date of the last re-certification of the applicant. (I.e.: Avalanche Module, Low Angle Rescue Module, etc.) 

It is the intent that this procedure would be utilized only once per member as a method to re-establish active status as a Certified Patroller. It is not intended to be used as a substitute for the need to re-certify on the three (3) year schedule. The Credentials Committee shall circulate the “Application for Re-instatement of Active Status” to the members of that committee for review. The recommendation of the Credentials Committee shall then be forwarded to the Certified Chairperson, and if the application were approved then notice would be directed by the Credentials Committee Chairperson to the applicant.

           

                                    Meetings and Elections

Section 1        The rules contained in "Robert's Rules of Order" shall govern the Eastern Division  Certified Committee and membership in all cases to which they are applicable, and in which they are not inconsistent with the rules of order or Program Guide of the Eastern Division Certified Committee. 

Section 2

Meetings

            A spring meeting / examination shall be held annually. The Certified Chairperson shall set the date and place of the meeting and shall notify the membership in writing. A general membership meeting may be held in the fall upon written notification of the membership as to the location and date. A quorum at 25% of the general membership shall be necessary to hold a business meeting.

Section 3        Voting privileges at business meetings shall be awarded to Active Members, Charter Members, and Lifetime Members (as described in Article four)

Section 4        Written proxy votes will be accepted at business meetings of the membership. No Certified member can carry more than one proxy.    Elections shall be held for the position of Certified Program Chairperson at the spring meeting in the odd numbered years. The Nominating Committee Chairperson shall present a slate of nominee(s) in writing with the notification of the annual meeting to the membership. The slate is not restricted to persons put forth by the Nominating Committee. Nominations may also come from the floor after the slate is read. Write in ballots will be accepted. Election is to be by secret ballot tallied by the Certified Secretary and the Nominating Committee Chairperson unless he or she is a candidate at which time he or she shall be replaced by the Steering Committee Chairperson.

Precourses

Section 1        Each candidate must attend and pass a ski and toboggan precourse before being allowed to participate in an exam. Each precourse will include all skills and maneuvers in the regular ski and toboggan exam. The dates and locations of the precourses will be published.

The Certified Exam

Section 1        The content and administration of the Certified Exam shall be according to the National Ski Patrol Certified Program as permissibly modified by the Eastern Division Certified Patroller Committee

Area Operations and Risk Management

(Module 1)

            The Area Operations and Risk Management module consists of two separate stations conducted as interviews. The two stations should be staffed by at least three (3) Certified Examiners each. Each team should consist of at least one examiner with experience in patrol management, as a mountain manager, or with interviewing. Each Interview should last approximately 45 minutes.

            The Risk Management Interview will be conducted outside, either on the hill on skis, around a lift terminal, in the base area or a combination of all three. The focus of this portion of the exam is to determine if the candidate is aware of potential problems that can arise at a ski area, has the ability to identify them and can provide a viable solution to eliminate them. The candidate’s ability to think quickly, effectively and creatively will be assessed at this station.

            The questions asked of a candidate can include, but are not limited to following categories: 

  • Hazards, manmade and natural (signage and  marking)

  • Opening and closing procedures

  • Snowmaking

  • Lift operations (ANSI codes)

  • Grooming

  • Accidents and accident investigations

  • Safe skiing programs

  • *Risk management

  • Laws governing ski area operations

  • Mass casualty plan

             

* Risk management should be the focal point of this portion of the exam. The candidate should be prepared to discuss this subject from a pre and post loss perspective, as well as the accident and incident investigation in detail. The who, when, why, and how of ski area operations.

            Scoring - Using the 1-10 scale, the candidate will be scored on their knowledge of ski area operations and risk management and their ability to think through the presented hypothetical problems. The candidate must score an average of 8 from the three examiners

            The Patrol Management Interview  will  be conducted inside, preferably in a quiet area conducive to holding an interview.  The focus of this portion of the exam is to interview a candidate applying for the position of Patrol Director. The candidate will be expected to budget, staff and equip a patrol. They should be provided with a map of a ski area that they will be expected to staff and equip. They will also be expected to discuss in detail any of the following issues. The list of discussion subjects can include, but are not limited to the following categories:

  • Personnel (Pro-Volunteer)(compensation)

  • Equipment (sleds, evac, radios, etc)

  • Mountain coverage

  • Trail opening, closing procedures

  • Patrol management (administration)

  • Communications

  • Patrol image

  • Patrol relations with other departments

  • Supplies

  • Training

  • Lift evacuation

  • Accident reports

  • Director compensation

  • Mass Casualty Plan

            The interviewing team should be provided with a copy of the candidate's Certified application for reference.

            Scoring - Using the 1-10 scale, the candidate will be scored on their knowledge of patrol procedures and the candidate’s working knowledge, experience and philosophies of patrol operations. The candidate must score an average of 8 from the three examiners.

Avalanche Management

(Module 2)

            The Avalanche Management portion of the Certified Exam will consist of two parts:

                                    a)         A written exam

                                    b)         A physical search using transceivers

            The written portion of the exam will include but is not limited to questions concerning the following:

  • Avalanche awareness

  • Personal safety

  • Avalanche rescue

  • Probing

  • Transceiver search

  • Decision-making

            The information required of a Certified Candidate in the Eastern Division should be limited to the information available in the NSPS Basic Avalanche Course.

                        Scoring – For this section will be Pass / Fail

Emergency Care

(Module 3)

            The Emergency Care module of the Certified Program consists of three (3) separate stations.

                                    1)         Written

                                    2)         Bystander Problem

                                    3)         Practical Problems (3)

                                                a) One problem as the leader

                                                b) Two problems as a helper

            The Written portion of this section should be held in a quiet area conducive to taking a written exam and large enough for the candidates to be able to have enough room to work.  The written portion should be administered in the form of essay questions that require the candidate to describe the procedures involved in solving a difficult scenario. Possible subjects include, but are not limited to the following:

                                    1)         Organizing a mass casualty plan

                                    2)         Answering specific questions about a written scenario

                                    3)         Develop a written solution to an emergency care scenario

                        Scoring – Scoring at this station is pass / fail

            The Bystander Problem - consists of a simulated accident scenario involving an emergency care problem that will require assistance from one or more untrained bystander(s). The candidate will successfully direct untrained bystander(s) in the delivery of emergency care in a multiple injury/illness incident involving one or more patients.

            The Bystander Problem should be staffed by at least three (3) Certified examiners. At least two examiners should have experience in examining emergency care scenarios and be familiar with documenting the candidate’s performance using a time line so that their results can be discussed with them at the end of the day.

            Scoring - Using the 1-10 scale, each candidate should be scored on decision making, leadership, problem management, resource management, awareness of ski area operation issues and OEC performance. The candidates must score an average of 8 from the three examiners.

            The Practical Problems station consists of three simulated accident scenarios involving multiple injury/illnesses and multiple patients. Certified candidates will be assigned in groups of three by the Certified OEC Chairperson or their designate. The candidates should consolidate any equipment that they require and spend some time discussing any differences in procedures. Each candidate must participate in the role of a leader once and as a helper twice.

            The Practical Problems should be staffed by at least three (3) Certified examiners. At least two examiners should have experience in examining emergency care scenarios and be familiar with documenting the candidate’s performance using a time line so that their results can be discussed with them at the end of the day.

            Scoring - Using the 1-10 scale, each candidate should be scored on decision making, leadership, problem management, resource management, awareness of ski area operation issues and OEC performance. The candidates must score an average of 8 from the three examiners.

Lift Evacuation and Rope Management

(Module 4)

            The Lift Evacuation and Rope Management module of the Certified Program consists of two separate stations

                                    1)         Lift Evacuation

                                    2)         Low Angle Rescue

            The Lift Evacuation Station will test the candidate's working knowledge of a lift evacuation. The candidate will explain the procedures taken after a lift evacuation is called including setting up their evacuation equipment. (There will be no lowering of people from the chairlift). They will be required to demonstrate specific practical skills, which includes hands on demonstration and explanation of their lift evacuation gear.

            The Lift Evacuation Station should be staffed by at least three (3) examiners, at least two of which have experience with their mountain’s lift evacuation refresher.

            Examiners will score the candidates performance by the following guidelines: 

  • Safety

  • Knowledge of procedures (lockout ...etc)

  • Knowledge of equipment

  • Precautions

  • Dilemmas (chair on sheaves, over water .. etc)

  • Equipment inspection and storage

  • Post evacuation procedures

  • Rope handling

  • Belay techniques

            Scoring this station is Pass / Fail

The Low Angle Rescue Station consists of two parts

                                    1)         Knot tying (indoor station)

                                                a)         Bachman

                                                b)         Prussik

                                                c)         Figure 8

                                                d)         Double Fisherman's

                                                e)         Waterline

                                                f)          Bowline

                                                g)         Munter Hitch

Candidates must properly tie the above knots to advance to the outdoor station

                                    2)         The practical application of low angle rescue consists of setting up the raising and lowering system. It will incorporate the ropes, knots carabiners, slings, anchors, safeties and litters.

            The candidate will be required to set up a raising and lowering system and explain to the examiners all that they are doing. The candidate will put the hasty seat on themselves and explain its uses at the litter as a tender and on the lowering. The candidate will have to do the lowering as if a rescuer were attached, tie it off, and then set up the Z-drag system. Once the system is set up, the candidate will have to show the examiners that the system works by pulling the litter up.

                        Scoring this station is Pass / Fail

           

            The Low angle rescue station should be staffed by at least three (3) Certified examiners, at least one of which has a background in climbing.

            Stepping on the rope or slings is an automatic fail and the system has to work to pass.

            Examiners will look for proper setup and use of:

  •   Stout anchor with sling and carabiner around it

  •   All carabiners locked

  •   Rope threaded through carabiners properly

  •   Rope secured to litter or sled with slings, carabiners, and figure 8 knot

  •   Prussik knots in right places

  •   Bachman knots in right places

  •   Slings on litter for two rescuers

  •   Hasty seat on candidate

  •   Figure 8 descent device attached or munter hitch used

  •   Mechanical Advantage 3:1 system setup and operational               

                       

Skiing

(Module 5)

            The skiing components of the Certified program are as follows:

                                                1)         Crud skiing

                                                2)         Groomed skiing

                                                3)         Mogul skiing

                                                4)         Steep skiing

                                                5)         Snowplow

                                                6)         Sideslip

                                                7)         Equipment Carry

           

            Crud Skiing - Certified candidates will be expected to ski any slope under almost any type of snow condition. If crud, powder or icy conditions exist only in isolated places along the side of the slope, the instructor may create a corridor and ask the Certified candidates to ski within it. The candidate should be able to handle the conditions in a stable aggressive manner with style and confidence. Skier should be able to stop within a short distance at any time. Turns may be short, medium or long radius. Candidates should avoid long traverses, turning continuously as they progress down the hill.

            Groomed skiing - The candidate will ski a relatively smooth expert run using a combination of long, medium and short radius turns as appropriate to the terrain. The candidate will demonstrate a high level of technical ability combined with personal style. This should be the type of run made while free skiing in a patrol parka. The image created should instill confidence in the skiing public.

            Mogul Skiing - The candidate should ski this run under complete control at a speed that demonstrates self confidence and ability. The candidate should demonstrate linked turns, consistent speed, fall line decent and minimal traversing.

            Steep skiing - The candidate will ski a very steep slope with stability and aggressiveness. The candidate should demonstrate effective technical skills, controlled speed, minimal sideslip, and minimal traversing.

            Snowplow - will be held on a moderately steep moguled slope on a course consisting of a series of left and right gates and a fall line corridor. The candidate will demonstrate a fluid and controlled snowplow in a balanced and stable position. They will demonstrate edge control maintaining pressure on both edges throughout the course. Their speed will be appropriate for the terrain and that speed will remain constant throughout the course. In the corridor, the candidate will demonstrate a fall line snowplow, showing balance, stability and equal weight distribution, while maintaining a constant speed. At the end of the corridor the candidate will perform a definitive stop using either a snowplow or hockey stop.

            Sideslip - will be held on a steep moguled slope on a course consisting of a series of gates requiring forward and backward sideslip and two fall line corridors requiring straight descent sideslip. The candidate will demonstrate a stable and balanced sideslip using proper edge control to maintain an appropriate and consistent speed throughout the course. The candidate will demonstrate the ability to clear built up snow when necessary. Once in the corridor the candidate will remain within the confines of the corridor and in the fall line demonstrating proper balance and edge control. At designated points, usually identified by double poles, the candidate will demonstrate a kick turn. The candidate will remain stopped until instructed to continue.

            Equipment Carry - will be held on a steep moguled slope. The candidate will demonstrate the ability to ski in a stable, safe and confident manner while carrying some patrol equipment. The candidate will demonstrate proper technique using short, medium and long radius turns when appropriate. The candidate's speed should be appropriate for the terrain and remain constant throughout the run. Turns should be parallel and in the fall line with a minimum of traversing or stopping.

            Scoring - Using the 1-10 scale the candidates will be scored in all seven events and must score a minimum of 336 points to be successful in the skiing events.  To compile scores, the high and low examiner scores for each candidate in each event will be eliminated leaving 6 examiners scores to be tallied. For example: 6 scores X 8 (score given by each examiner) = 48 points times seven events = 336 points. It is possible for a candidate to score low in one event and high in another and still be successful in the skiing module.

            Examiners chosen for the skiing event will be chosen by the skiing chairperson and should consist of a team whose skills are of a consistently high level. 

Toboggan

(Module 6)

            The toboggan components of the Certified program are as follows:

                                    1)         Unloaded Toboggan

                                    2)         Loaded Front

                                    3)         Loaded skills

            Unloaded Toboggan - will be held on a steep moguled trail. The sled in this event should be run in an expedient and controlled manner, maintaining consistent speed. Route selection, mental alertness, skier and slope awareness and good judgment will be evaluated. Approach to a patient must be done as not to endanger or give the appearance of potential danger or further injury to the patient. The sled must be brought to a complete stop and a securing method should be demonstrated.

            Loaded Front - The sled should be run as if the patient has a very painful NON life threatening injury and will be held on a steep moguled slope. The candidate will demonstrate a controlled expedient run maintaining consistent speed appropriate to the terrain and injury throughout the run. The ride should be smooth so as not to cause patient discomfort. The candidate will demonstrate mental alertness, proper route selection, skier / slope awareness and good judgment. Jerking, bumpiness, continual stopping or pulling the sled, twisting or loss of sideways control are not acceptable.

            Loaded skills - The sled will be run as if the patient has a very painful NON life threatening injury and will be held on a steep moguled slope. There will be a series of left and right hand gates and a fall line corridor. The candidate will demonstrate appropriate technique for the terrain. The course will be negotiated with appropriate and consistent speed. During the traverse there will be only a minimal sideways slipping of the sled. While in the corridor the candidate will demonstrate 3 left and 3 right transitions maintaining consistent speed and keeping the sled in the fall line 

Scoring - Using the 1-10 scale the candidates will be scored in all three events and must score a minimum of 144 points to be successful in the toboggan events.  To compile scores, the high and low examiner scores for each candidate in each event will be eliminated leaving 6 examiners scores to be tallied. For example: 6 scores X 8 (score given by each examiner) = 48 points times three events = 144 points. It is possible for a candidate score low in one event and high in another and still be successful in the toboggan module.

            Examiners chosen for the skiing event will be chosen by the skiing chairperson and should consist of a team whose skills are of a consistently high level. 

Results / Scoring

                All scoring is complete and final at the end of the annual exam. Any scoring changes require the involvement of the Certified Chairperson, the Chairperson of the module in question and all examiners directly involved with the dispute and must be resolved before the end of the annual exam.

Examiners

Section 1        All examiners shall come from the general membership, however others may be included with the concurrence from the Committee Chair and the Certified Chairperson

Section 2        Examiners for both Ski and Toboggan and  Emergency Care shall first serve as candidate examiners for a period of time determined by the respective Chairperson and the Certified Chairperson

Section 3        A PSPA examiner, in good standing, may serve after being admitted as a Certified member and approved by the Chairperson.

Section 4        Ski and Toboggan and Emergency Care Examiners must attend a Certified Examiners Clinic

Section 5        To become an Emergency Care examiner in the Certified program :

            a)         Should be an OEC instructor

            b)         Should serve as an injured person for one exam                                     

            c)         Should serve as an examiner candidate for at least one season

            d)         Should serve as an examiner for at least two seasons before serving as the lead examiner    

            e)         Should be a Certified member

Reciprocity

Section 1        PSPA members in good standing may apply for National Ski Patrol reciprocity. They must submit an application, have it approved, and attend the Spring Examination. Here they must pass all sections agreed to as non-reciprocal in a joint meeting of the PSPA and the NSP at Mount Snow Vermont December 7, 1995. (see attached agreement). In order to become Certified they must join the National Ski Patrol.

Amendments

Section 1        Amendments to this Program Guide may be made at any annual meeting, following written notice to the membership in good standing of the proposal at the time of notification of the annual meeting. An amendment must be approved by a two-thirds affirmative vote of those present and eligible to vote and written proxies limited to one per member present.

Upcoming Events

30 Sep 2017;
08:00AM -
Nashoba OEC Refresher
15 Oct 2017;
08:00AM -
2017 OEC Refresher @ Bradford